sábado, 25 de junio de 2011

Experience Some of ISTE Without Being There

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Phonics 1 Symboles used in pronuncing Englsih letters

World Wide Words

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viernes, 24 de junio de 2011

Pachuquismos

Ay Te Watcho Used when you say good-bye to someone. Literally translates into "watch yourself."
Ay Te Miro Same as above. Literally translates into "see you later."
Al Rato See you soon.
Barrio Neighborhood, hood, etc.
Calo Language or slang of the cholos and pachucos.
Chalé Used to tell someone to "keep cool" or "be cool", also used to indicate disagreement with something said.
Chingon Bad-ass. As in Suavecito's is "lo mas chingon"!
Chisme As many of you know, Eskimos have well over a dozen words to describe "snow". Well, we Mexicanos have almost as many to describe "gossip". This is one of the many variations.
Chismoso One who engages in chisme. Check out Chismosos Corner.
Cholo/a Raza on the street (also modern day pachuco).
Chones Loosely translates into, ummm - shall we say, your underwear.
Corazon Heart.
c/s Con Safos - literally translates to "don't mess with this/me/etc.".
Drape The name for the zoot suit jacket worn by the Pachuco.
Esé Used instead of "homeboy", "dude", etc. (see Vato below)
Fería Money
Firme Cool, just swell, etc.
Ganas Guts, drive, motivation, balls to do something
Guero/a Individuals from the Caucasian persuasion. (Or light skinned individuals.)
Guey Pronounced "way" - loosely translates to "idiot".
Lana Money.
Mero The tops, as in "el mero perro" - the "top dog"
Mierda Shit.
Mocos Boogers.
Mocoso Someone, who shall we say, "engages in mocos".
Onda Though there's no literal translation that really works, it loosely translates into trip, way of thinking, gig, thing, etc. Often used in asking what's up? "¿Qué onda?"
Oralé 1.) Another version of saying "What's Up?" (see Q-Vo below). 2.) Also used to indicate agreement with someone.
Orgullo Pride.
Pachucada Lifestyle of the Pachuco.
Pachuco Old school term for Chicano zooters - the dress, attitude, language, culture, etc.
Pedo Well folks, the literal translation of this multipurpose word is "fart", and it's often used in this regard. However, it is also used to describe the stages of inebriation toward the further end of the scale. It is also used to describe pretty much any situation that is rather, ummm... unsavory (i.e. fights, etc.).
Pegged How the pants are tapered and fit tight around the ankles.
Pelon One who is, shall we say, "hairline challenged."
Perro Dog
Pinche F_ _ king this, f_ _ king that.
¿Qué Onda? "What's your gig?"
¿Q-Vo? Another version of saying "What's Up?", "What's Happening?"
Reina Queen
Respeto Respect.
Ruca A fine looking woman with a lot of orgullo.
Simón Used to signify agreement with someone.
Tablitas
(also known as Spectators) Stacy Adams® is the name brand of the distinctive patent-leather wing tip (often two-toned) shoes worn by the Pachuco.
Tando Broad-brimmed hat
Traje Suit
Trapos Clothes or outfit.
Trucha Means watch yourself, watch out or check yourself.
Vato Used instead of "homeboy", "dude", etc. (see Ese above)
Vavoso Literal translation "a saliva laden dumb ass". In the barrio, it's used to describe anyone that's not down.
Veterano Literally translate to "veteran". Also reflects on the elder in the community, the Latino version of an "OG".
Vieja/Viejo Old woman/old man, wife/husband, etc.
Watcha Look out, watch yourself, check yourself, etc.
¿Y-Que? And what?! Said with attitude - don't know how else to say it.
Zoot Suiter or Zooter Name of a person who wears Zoot Suits (and is just generally a cool vato.)

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‘Pretty’ is as pretty does

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http://www.economist.com/blogs/johnson/2011/06/accented-letters

http://www.economist.com/blogs/johnson/2011/06/accented-letters

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Parts of Speech and Grammatical Terms

Parts of Speech and Grammatical Terms
1.1 Some words have simple meanings.
Many words have several meanings. Take the word “round”, for example.
This word has quite different meanings as in
A round shape.
The second round of a boxing or wrestling match.
Come round for a meal next week.
The different meanings of “round” stem from the different uses to which the the word may be put. In a “round shape”, for example, the word has a describing function; in the “second round” it has an identifying function, naming a feature of a boxing or wrestling match.
To understand the structure of English, it is necessary to understand the various functions which words can have. These functions are usually known as “parts of speech”. Remember that there are many words that have more than one function.
1.2 A noun names a person, place or thing:
Paul, man, dog, street, Ireland
The “thing” may be a place (garden, Sussex), quality (pretty, tranquility), state (illness, agitated) action (intervention, work) or be a concept (democracy, crime). It may also be either tangible or intangible.

Nouns may be singular (forest, woman, quality) or plural (forests, women, qualities). A few are the same in the singular and plural (aircraft, sheep) and some have no singular (scissors, pants).
Nouns which name a group of people or things (crowd, collection, herd) are called collective nouns and may be regarded as either singular or plural depending on whether the emphasis is on the singular entity or its plural components.
Nouns which name special or unique persons or things (the President, Charles II, the Museum of Childhood) have capital letters and are known as proper nouns.
Two nouns are sometimes found side by side, one of them identifying or explaining the other:
George Thompson, a farmer, pleaded guilty to driving without due care and attention.
The pedestrian, a schoolboy, was unhurt when the scaffold collapsed. .
Such nouns are said to be in apposition.
1.3 A pronoun stands in place of a noun:
she, we, it, everybody.
Pronouns are a handy device for avoiding the repetition of nouns.
Instead of writing
The tree has been felled. The tree had been damaged in the storm.

We are able to write
the tree has been felled. It had been damaged in the storm.

The noun that the pronoun stands in place of is called its antecedent.
Here, the antecedent of It is a tree in the previous sentence. In
The players thought they had won.
The actress forgot her lines.

The antecedents of they and her are players and actress in the same sentence.
Pronouns may be singular (I, he, she, it) or plural (we, they); the pronoun you may be singular or plural depending on whether it refers to one person or to several.
The most important categories of pronoun are:
Personal e.g. (I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his).
Demonstrative e.g. (This, these, that, those, (as in belonged to my father)).
Interrogative e.g. (Who, whose, which, what (as in Who did that?)).
Indefinite e.g. (Anybody, none, no-one, either, each).
Relative e.g. (Who, whose, which, what, whom, that).
Relative pronouns are so called because, as well as acting as pronouns, they relate or join groups of words. Instead or writing
The tree has been felled. The tree (or It) had been damaged in a storm. We may write.
The tree, which had been damaged in a storm, has been felled. Thus joining two short sentences into one by using a relative pronoun.
1.4 An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
Enthusiastic, eighth, tallest, invisible.
Adjectives are normally placed before the nouns they describe (several large white whales) but other positions are possible.
The morning was misty and cold.
The morning, was misty and cold, depressed his spirits.
If adjectives are formed from proper pronouns, they too have capital letters (the American way of life, the Christian religion).
It is a particular flexibility of English that words which are used as nouns may be used as adjectives (country customs, office manager, beauty treatment).
1.5 A Verb expresses an action or state of being.
Walked, think, thought, arm.
Verbs may consist of several words:
They should have known that he was working.
Verbs have different forms to indicate the times when actions take place. These forms are called tenses.
Present tense: I agree
Past tense: I agreed, I had agreed
Future tense: I shall agree

There are varieties of tense, such as the continuous tense (I am agreeing, I was agreeing).
The subject of a verb is the word or group of words that performs the action of that verb:
He fell over. To delay too long would be risky.
The object of a verb is the word or group of words that receives the action of that verb:
I stubbed my toe. Do you like the colour? Try jogging.
It is not necessary for a verb to have an object:
She was sleeping. They are trying very hard.
Some pronouns have different forms depending on whether they are subject or object of a verb:
I saw him but he did not see me.
The words I and me refer to the same person, as do him and he, but I and he are subject forms, and me and him are object forms.
Some verbs, notably the verb to be (am, are, is, and there past and future tenses) cannot have an object because they do not express an action which can affect or transmit to an object. They express a state:
I am a neighbour of his. He is helpful.
The words following these verbs are called complements. Verbs which take complements are sometimes called linking verbs (or copulas) because their function is to link subject and complement, as distinct from expressing an action performed by a subject upon an object.
A verb that has a subject is called a finite verb. Sometimes, mainly when a command is expressed, the subject is omitted but clearly implied: for example, in Keep Off the Grass, the subject of Keep is ‘understood’ to be you, and the verb is finite even though no subject is stated.
A verb that does not have a subject is called a non-finite verb.
Examples of non-finite verb were seen in
To delay too long would be risky. Try jogging.
Which are verb forms without subjects. Non-finite verbs may be used as nouns.
Shopping is easiest on Mondays.
Or as adjectives.
The shopping bag is full of squashed tomatoes.
A verb is said to be transitive when it has an object and intransitive when it does not. Many verbs function both transitively, with a difference in meaning.
The neighbours were burning garden rubbish. (Transitive)
The lamps were burning brightly. (Intransitive)
Some verbs, however, are always intransitive (e.g. rise, pause, shudder) and others always transitive.
A verb is active when the subject performs an active.
I misled you.
And passive when the subject suffers it
I was misled by you.
The form of some verbs is affected whether the subject is singular or plural:
The roof leaks. The pipes leak.
This agreement of subject and verb is an important feature of English.
1.6 An adverb describes a verb, adjective or other adverb:
He called loudly. There was a very faint reply. He called more loudly.
When an adverb describes a verb, it usually indicates how, when, where or why the action of the verb takes place.
Most adverbs are formed by adding –ly to adjectives (casual, casually), though this is not always so. Some adverbs have the same for as adjectives.
They deliver weekly. (Adverb) There is a weekly delivery. (Adjective).
Occasionally, an adverb may describe a preposition or conjunction.
Some adverbs affect the sense of the whole sentence rather than just one of its components (e.g. the verb). The word then is used as a straightforward adverb of time in
The book then goes on to describe the cause of this revolution.
(Indicating the time when the action of the verb occurs), but in
The book, then, makes an important contribution to our understanding of modern South America.
Then (meaning in this way) had a dual purpose: it enlarges the meaning of the verb makes, and also – more importantly – expresses a relationship between the whole sentence and what has gone before. The preceding sentences have, presumably, been about the book, and the writer wishes to draw a conclusion from them; then indicates that the conclusion expressed in the sentence follows logically from what he previously written.

A different sort of relationship – not a logical conclusion but a contrast – is found in.
Food is expensive. Wine, however, is cheap.

Adverbs used in this way are known as sentence adverbs (because they affect a whole sentence) or conjuncts or conjunctive adverbs.(because of their linking function). They normally occur at or near the beginning of sentences.

Adverbs which are found as conjuncts include incidentally, instead, namely, so, likewise, indeed, moreover, therefore, still, consequently, nevertheless, yet, then otherwise, for, thus, besides, accordingly, again, furthermore, hence.

1.7 A preposition expresses a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other
part of the sentence:
He disappeared into the crowd. She took it from me.

A preposition usually precedes (‘governs’) a noun or pronoun, or a group of words having the same grammatical function as a noun and expresses its relationship to some other word (normally a verb, noun or adjective) in another part of the same sentence. This other part is usually earlier in the same sentence.
You must walk around in the wood, not through it.
The preposition indicate different relationships of place between walk (verb) and wood. Prepositions may express relationships of time
They arrived during the afternoon/before nightfall/after lunch.
Or of manner
Hit with a hammer. It was delivered by hand.
Preposition are sometimes omitted
They showed (to) him the way.
And may occasionally come after a noun/pronoun they govern instead of
With what did you mend it?
It is more natural to say
What did you mend it with?
It has already been shown that some pronouns (I, he, he, she, we, they, who,) adopt a different form when used as an object of a verb (me, him, her, us, them, whom). These object-forms must also be used when the pronouns are governed by a proposition:
Share it between him and me. For whom it is intended?
The same word may be a proposition (Wait outside the door) or an adverb (Wait outside) depending on its function in a sentence.
1.8 A conjunction joins two words or groups of words.
blue and white stripes; take it or leave it; I went early because I was tired.

The conjunction need not always be placed between the words being linked:
Because I was tired, I went early.
Although he was injured, he went on playing.
It is possible for a word to be a conjunction in one sense and a different part of speech in another.
Because I was tired, I went early.
Although he was injured, he went on playing.
It is possible for a word to be considered a conjunction in one sentence and a different part of speech in another:
Look before you leap. (Conjunction)
It has happened before. (Adverb)
We left before the end. (Preposition).

Grammatical Function
Several examples have been provided to show how a word may act as several different parts of speech, depending on its function in a particular sentence.
Put it down. (Adverb)
Let’s walk down the hill. (Preposition)
These pillows are filled with down. (Noun)
Is there any down payment? (Adjective)
They decided to down tools. (Verb)

It is important to think of parts of speech as categories of work, and to bear in mind than many English words belong to more than one category. Most dictionaries indicate what these categories are.
1.10 A group of words may act as part of speech. The next chapter shows how parts of speech, whether as single words or groups, are built into sentences,

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The Robe 1953

Construction Project management vocabulary E

Employment Agreement - A contract binding an employee to an employer for a specific length of time and for disclosed compensation.
Engineer - A professional firm and/or individual who is professionally engaged in an engineering discipline.
Escrow Account - Money put into the custody of the third party by the first party for disbursement tot the second party. A brief temporary depository for progress payments until authorized for release according to the depositor’s explicit instructions.
Estimate - (1) To calculate approximately the amount, extent or value of something (2) To form an opinion of estimated costs.
Estimate of Construction Cost - A calculation of costs prepared on the basis of a detailed analysis of materials and labor for all items of work, as contrasted with an estimate based on current area, volume or similar unit costs.
Estimated Cost to Complete - An estimate of the cost still to be expended on a work-scope in order to complete it. The difference between the Cost to Date and the Estimated Final Cost.
Estimated Final Cost - An estimate of the final cost of a work item based on its Cost to Date and the estimated cost to complete it. The sum of the Cost to Date and the Estimated Cost to Complete.
Estimating - A process of calculating the amount of material, labor and equipment required for a given project necessary to complete the work as specified.
Ethics - Self-imposed rules or standards of performance for professionals set by the organization or association to which the professional belongs or by the public trust.
Extended Services - Dissimilar services included in a contract to be performed over and above those that are included as the principal services of the contract.
Extended Services-CM - A form of CM where other services such as design, construction, and contracting are included with ACM services provided by the construction manager.

Construction Project management vocabulary D

Daily Construction Report - A written document and record that has two main purposes: (1) they furnish information to off-site persons who need and have a right to know important details of events as they occur daily and hourly, and (2) they furnish historical documentation that might later have a legal bearing in cases of disputes. Daily reports should be as factual and impersonal as possible, free from the expression of personal opinions and feelings. Each report should be numbered to correspond with the working days established on the progress schedule. In the event of no-work days, a daily report should still be made, stating "no work today" ( due to rain, strike, or other causes). The report includes a description of the weather; a record of the total number of employees, subcontractors by name, work started and completed today, equipment on the job site, job progress today, names and titles of visitors, accidents and/or safety meetings, and a remarks column for other job related information.
Date of Agreement - (1) Usually on the front page of the agreement (2) If not on front page it may be the date opposite the signatures when the agreement was actually signed (3) or when it was recorded (4) or the date the agreement was actually awarded to the contractor.
Date of Commencement of the Work - The date established in a written notice to proceed from the owner to the contractor.
Date of Substantial Completion - The date certified by the architect when the work or a designated portion thereof is sufficiently complete, in accordance with the contract documents, so the owner may occupy the work or designated portion thereof for the use for which it is intended.
Demising Walls - The boundaries that separate your space from your neighbors' and from the public corridor.
Design - A graphical representation consisting of plan views, interior and exterior elevations, sections, and other drawings and details to depict the goal or purpose for a building or other structure.
Design Development Phase - The term used on architectural projects to describe the transitional phase from the Schematic Phase to the Contract Document during design.
Designability - A pragmatic, value-based assessment of the design in comparison with the stated physical and aesthetic needs of the owner.
Design-Build (D-B) - A project delivery method where a design-build contractor (contractor-led D-B), A/E design professional (design-led D-B) or CM (CM-led D-B) is directly responsible for both the total project design and construction of the project. Design-Build liability can be explicitly conveyed through the contract documents or implicitly conveyed through the assumption of project-specific design liability, via performance specifications.
Design-Build Construction - When a Prime or Main contractor bids or negotiates to provide Design and Construction services for the entire construction project.
Design-Build Contracting - A contract structure where both design and construction responsibility are vested in a single contractor.
Design-Build Contractor - A contractor that provides design and construction services under a single responsibility contract to an owner.
Design-Construct Contract - A written agreement between and contractor and owner wherein the contractor agrees to provide both design and construction services.
Design-Development Phase - The second phase of the architect's basic services wherein the architect prepares drawings and other presentation documents to fix and describe the size and character of the entire project as to architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical systems, materials and other essentials as may be appropriate; and prepares a statement of probable construction cost.
Design-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM, where the A/E also provides the CM function.
Detail - (1) An individual part or item (2) A graphical scale representation, e.g., a drawing at a larger scale, of construction parts or items showing materials, composition and dimensions.
Detailed Construction Schedule - A graphic, tabular or narrative representation or depiction of the construction portion of the project-delivery process, showing individual activities and durations or activities in sequential order at the lowest level of detail (Level-3 Schedule).
Direct Costs - The costs directly attributed to a work-scope, such as labor, material, equipment, and subcontracts but not t he cost of operations overhead and the labor, material, equipment, and subcontracts expended in support of the undertaking. Direct Costs, Hard Costs, and Construction Costs are synonymous.
Direct Labor Costs - Costs accruing from expended labor excluding the bonus portion of overtime, insurances, and payroll taxes.
Direct Material Costs - Costs accruing from material acquisition including purchase price, freight, and taxes.
disarmed
Division of Work - A portion of the total project reserved for contractors for bidding and performance purposes, i.e., Bid Division or Work-Scope.
Division of Work Description - A narrative description of the concise work-scope to be bid and performed by a contractor; Bid Description Division or Work Scope. 
Drawings - (1) A term used to represent that portion of the contract documents that graphically illustrates the design, location, geometry and dimensions of the components and elements contained in a specific project in sufficient detail to facilitate construction. (2) A line drawing.
Dual Services - The providing of more than one principal service under a single contract or multiple contracts.
Duration - The length of an activity, excluding holidays and other non-working days.
Dynamic Decisions - Decisions that are made without team deliberations. Autonomous or bilateral decisions based on policy, procedures, or experience.
Dynamic Risk - The risk inherent to a speculative decision. The risk-taker can either gain, lose, or break even from the risk.

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Phonics lessons

Articulation: Speaking Clearly

Article from:
http://www.speakmethod.com/articulation.html

Articulation: Speaking Clearly
In order to speak clearly, we have to think about the physical body and give attention to the apparatus that we use for speaking. This is literally the breath, the throat, the jaw, the tongue and the lips. Many people never give these basics much thought, but professional speakers and singers do.
Breath
We all know that breath and health go together. Unfortunately, many people do not learn breathing techniques when young because they are usually taught for specific arts or sports. Also, healthy breathing might not be fully understood by a young person.

To speak clearly, the body needs to be open--from the movement of the diaphragm muscle, where deep breath originates, through the lungs, the chest, the throat and the mouth. If any one of these passages is tight, speech will sound more quiet or strained.

As you breath, make sure you use your diaphragm (the muscle that expands your stomach). Use all of your lungs (try to feel the deepest or bottom-most lungs fill with air). Put your shoulders slightly back for good posture and to open your chest. Concentrate on visualizing your throat as an open passage. Let you jaw drop naturally and relax your temples (the sides of your face) so that the mouth is also free of tension.

Always remember that a healthy body acts as a whole. A healthy breath is a whole body experience. You should be able to feel the subtle expansion and contraction in your arms and legs as well.

Throat
The throat is an essential passageway for sound. It holds the vocal chords which make slight adjustments for different vowel sounds. A well-trained singer can change vowel sounds without as much difference in mouth position as regular people use. It's very important to keep the throat healthy and in a relaxed state.

Many people hold tension in their throats. Most people have one or more particular area of the body where tension tends to build up: the throat, the back, the stomach (for people who get stomach aches easily) or even the feet. You will know that you hold tension in the throat if you notice that your throat becomes tight when you are angry, sad or experiencing any kind of intense emotion. If you do this, then you want to be especially careful about keeping your throat healthy. You can massage the throat, drink hot tea and visualize your throat as an open passage as often as possible. Since most of us get distracted when involved in a conversation, you may want to read aloud while visualizing your open throat. You can also visualize light inside the throat.

Jaw
In some cultures, there is a preference to minimize facial movements. This is not popular in the U.S. and it does obstruct sound (or cause your voice to be more quiet). Clearly, for sound to get through, the jaw has to be able to move freely. As you speak, breath pushes upward, the vocal chords make slight adjustments and then the jaw allows the sound to turn that corner between your neck and your face. Think about the two sides of your jaw as hinges which need to be working well enough for the door to swing easily.

You don't need to open your mouth very wide to speak in a regular situation, but you do need the jaw to be unobstructed. Relaxing your temples helps to relax your jaw. When you're alone, you can squeeze your face around in funny ways to relax all of the facial muscles. This too helps the jaw to move freely.
Tongue
Another sound-obstruction can be the tongue. Some people have the habit of letting the tongue be heavy inside the mouth. Now sound has travelled all the way from the diaphragm to the mouth only to get absorbed by a thick tongue. The tongue is a complex muscle. We use all parts of it as we speak. To articulate words, you want your tongue to touch in just the right way. Your tongue touches the roof of the mouth behind the teeth for T, L, D and N. It is between or just behind the teeth for the TH sound. The back of the tongue is used for G and K. The tongue gets into a flattened position for S and Z. It is in a slightly tubular position for the American R. No matter what sound your tongue participates in creating, the touch needs to be correct--neither too light nor too heavy. If it touches too lightly, sounds blur together. If it touches too heavily, sound gets absorbed.

Practice by reading or speaking aloud. You might also record yourself. Concentrate on what your tongue is doing.Think about how your tongue touches. If your tongue feels very tired easily, you may need to make a daily practice of reading or speaking aloud while concentrating on your tongue.

Lips
Again, if your culture or family believed in minimizing facial movement, you may hestitate to move your lips as you speak. Yet sometimes the lips literally need to make space for sound. For instance, a long E, sometimes called "the smiling vowel" requires the lips to be pulled back in a slight smile position. If the lips are not pulled back at least somewhat, this sound may not be clear at all. Other lip-based sounds are W, B, P, M, short A, long O, long U, F, V, J, Ch, Sh, Qu. Professional speakers or singers often remove tension from the face and mouth by moving the lips in an exaggerated W repeatedly (kind of like being a fish).

If you are not used to using your lips, but want to begin doing this, trying reading or speaking aloud (alone) and letting your lips move in a very exaggerated way. Do this for a while once a day. In time, you should begin to naturally move your lips more whenever you speak.

Presentation Tips for Non-Native Speakers - Science Careers - Biotech, Pharmaceutical, Faculty, Postdoc jobs on Science Careers

Presentation Tips for Non-Native Speakers - Science Careers - Biotech, Pharmaceutical, Faculty, Postdoc jobs on Science Careers

English Tips Self-TaughtEnglish Tips Self-Taught

English Tips Self-TaughtEnglish Tips Self-Taught

Phonics in English

Phonics refers to an instructional design for teaching children to read. Phonics involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, or ck spellings).
Phonics in English
Phonics is a widely used method of teaching children to read, although it is not without controversy (see "History and controversy" below). Children begin learning to read using phonics usually around the age of 5 or 6. Teaching English reading using phonics requires children to learn the connections between letter patterns and the sounds they represent. Phonics instruction requires the teacher to provide students with a core body of information about phonics rules, or patterns.
Note: This article uses General American pronunciation.
Basic rules
Alphabetic principle
Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. See International Phonetic Alphabet for a pronunciation key.
From a linguistics perspective, English spelling is based on the alphabetic principle. In an alphabetic writing system, letters are used to represent speech sounds, or phonemes. For example, the word pat is spelled with three letters, p, a, and t, each representing a phoneme, respectively, /p/, /æ/, and /t/.[1]
The spelling systems for some alphabetic languages, such as Spanish, have relatively simple spelling systems because there is a nearly one-to-one correspondence between sounds and the letter patterns that represent them. English spelling is more complex because, although the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions, every sound can be legitimately spelled with different letters or letter combinations. [2] The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow the stated pattern. For example, the letters ee almost always represent /i/, but the sound can also be represented by the letter y. Similarly, the letter cluster ough represents /ʌf/ as in enough, /oʊ/ as in though, /u/ as in through, /ɔf/ as in cough, and /æɔ/ as in bough.
Although the patterns are inconsistent, when English spelling rules take into account syllable structure, phonetics, and accents, there are literally dozens of rules that are 75% or more reliable. See reference -Abbott, M. (2000). Identifying reliable generalizations for spelling words: The importance of multilevel analysis. The Elementary School Journal 101(2), 233-245.
A selection of phonics patterns is shown below.
Vowel phonics patterns
• Short vowels are the five single letter vowels, a, e, i, o, and u when they produce the sounds /æ/ as in cat, /ɛ/ as in bet, /ɪ/ as in sit, /ɑ/ as in hot, and /ʌ/ as in cup. The term "short vowel" does not really mean that these vowels are pronounced for a particularly short period of time. The use of the term is more conventional than meaningful.
• Long vowels are synonymous with the names of the single letter vowels, such as /eɪ/ in baby, /i/ in meter, /ɑɪ/ in tiny, /oʊ/ in broken, and /ju/ in humor. The way that educators use the term "long vowels" differs from the way in which linguists use this term. In classrooms, long vowels sounds are taught as being "the same as the names of the letters."
• Schwa is the third sound that most of the single vowel spellings can produce. The schwa is an indistinct sound of a vowel in an unstressed syllable, represented by the linguistic symbol ə. /ə/ is the sound made by the o in lesson. Schwa is a vowel pattern that is not always taught to elementary school students because it is difficult to understand. However, some educators make the argument that schwa should be included in primary reading programs because of its importance in reading English words.
• Closed syllables are syllables in which a single vowel letter is followed by a consonant. In the word button, both syllables are closed syllables because they contain single vowels followed by consonants. Therefore, the letter u' represents the short sound /ʌ/. (The o in the second syllable makes the /ə/ sound because it is an unstressed syllable.)
• Open syllables are syllables in which a vowel appears at the end of the syllable. The vowel will say its long sound. In the word basin, ba is an open syllable and therefore says /beɪ/.
• Diphthongs are linguistic elements that fuse two adjacent vowel sounds. English has four common diphthongs. The commonly recognized diphthongs are /aʊ/ as in cow and /ɔɪ/ as in boil. Four of the long vowels are also technically diphthongs, /eɪ/, /ɑɪ/, /oʊ/, and /ju/, which partly accounts for the reason they are considered "long."
• Vowel digraphs are those spelling patterns wherein two letters are used to represent the vowel sound. The ai in sail is a vowel digraph. Because the first letter in a vowel digraph sometimes says its long vowel sound, as in sail, some phonics programs once taught that "when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking." This convention has been almost universally discarded, owing to the many non-examples. The au spelling of the /ɔ/ sound and the oo spelling of the /u/ and /ʊ/ sounds do not follow this pattern.
• Vowel-consonant-E spellings are those wherein a single vowel letter, followed by a consonant and the letter e makes the long vowel sound. Examples of this include bake, theme, hike, cone, and cute. (The ee spelling, as in meet is sometimes considered part of this pattern.)
Consonant phonics patterns
• Consonant digraphs are those spellings wherein two letters are used to represent a consonant phoneme. The most common consonant digraphs are ch for /tʃ/, ng for /ŋ/, ph for /f/, sh for /ʃ/, th for /θ/ and /ð/, and wh for /ʍ/ (often pronounced /w/ in American English). Letter combinations like wr for /ɹ/ and kn for /n/ are also consonant digraphs, although these are sometimes considered patterns with "silent letters."
• Short vowel+consonant patterns involve the spelling of the sounds /k/ as in peek, /dʒ/ as in stage, and /tʃ/ as in speech. These sounds each have two possible spellings at the end of a word, ck and k for /k/, dge and ge for /dʒ/, and tch and ch for /tʃ/. The spelling is determined by the type of vowel that precedes the sound. If a short vowel precedes the sound, the former spelling is used, as in pick, judge, and match. If a short vowel does not precede the sound, the latter spelling is used, as in took, barge, and launch.
The final "short vowel+consonant pattern" is just one example of dozens that can be used to help children unpack the challenging English alphabetic code. This example illustrates that, while complex, English spelling retains order and reason.
Sight words and high frequency words
• There is a body of words that do not follow these rules; they are called "sight words". Sight words must be memorized since the regular rules do not apply, e.g., were, who, you.
• Teachers who use phonics also often teach students to memorize the most high frequency words in English, such as it, he, them, and when, even though these words are fully decodable. The argument for teaching these "high frequency words" is that knowing them will improve students' reading fluency.
History and controversy
Because of the complexity of the English alphabetic structure, more than a century of debate has occurred over whether English phonics ought to be taught at all. Beginning in the mid 19th century, some American educators, prominently Horace Mann, argued this point precisely. This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the "Dick and Jane" readers popular in the mid-20th century. Beginning in the 1950s, however, phonics resurfaced as a method of teaching reading. Spurred by Rudolf Flesch's criticism of the absence of phonics instruction (particularly in his popular book, Why Johnny Can't Read) phonics resurfaced, but—owing to Flesch's polemical approach—the term "phonics" became associated with political ideology. The popularity of phonics rose, but many educators associated it with "back to basics" pedagogy and eschewed it.
In the 1980s, the "whole language" approach to reading further polarized the debate in the United States. Whole language instruction was predicated on the principle that children could learn to read given (a) proper motivation, (b) access to quality literature, (c) many reading opportunities, (d) focus on meaning, and (e) instruction to help students use meaning clues to determine the pronunciation of unknown words. For some advocates of whole language, phonics was the antithesis of this emphasis on getting at the meaning. Parsing words into small chunks and reassembling them had no connection to the ideas the author wanted to convey. Much of the whole language theory easily dovetailed with phonics, but the whole language emphasis on understanding words through context and focusing only a little on the sounds (usually the alphabet consonants and the short vowels) could not be reconciled with the phonics emphasis on individual sound-symbol correspondences. Thus, a dichotomy between the whole language approach and phonics emerged in the United States, leading to intense debate and ultimately to a Congressionally-commissioned book and two government-funded panels focused on phonics.
The book Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print (Adams, 1990) argued that phonics is an effective way for students to learn to read. Adams argued strongly that both the phonics and the whole language advocates are right. Phonics is an effective way to teach students the alphabetic code. By learning the alphabetic code early, students can quickly free up mental energy they had used for word analysis and devote this mental effort to meaning, leading to stronger comprehension earlier in elementary education. This result matched the goal of whole language instruction while the means, at least in the earliest states of reading instruction, supported the advocates of phonics.
The argument, eventually known as "the Great Debate," continued unabated. The National Research Council re-examined the question of how best to teach reading to children (among other questions in education) and published the results in the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998). The National Research Council's findings matched those of Adams. Phonics is a very effective way to teach children to read, more effective than what is known as the "embedded phonics" approach of whole language (where phonics was taught opportunistically in the context of literature). They found that phonics must be systematic (following a sequence of increasingly challenging phonics patterns) and explicit (teaching students precisely how the patterns worked, e.g., "this is b, it stands for the /b/ sound").
The most recent attempt to determine what approach made the most sense was undertaken by the National Reading Panel (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2001), which examined quantitative research studies on phonics (as well as other areas of reading instruction). Their meta-analysis of hundreds of studies confirmed the findings of the National Research Council: phonics is a more effective way to teach children to read than is embedded phonics or no phonics instruction. They found that phonics has particularly strong benefits for students of low socio-economic status.
Different phonics approaches
Synthetic phonics is a method employed to teach phonics to children when learning to read. This method involves examining every spelling within the word individually as an individual sound and then blending those sounds together. For example, shrouds would be read by pronouncing the sounds for each spelling "/ʃ, ɹ, aʊ, d, z/" and then blending those sounds orally to produce a spoken word, "/ʃɹaʊdz/." The goal of synthetic phonics instruction is that students identify the sound-symbol correspondences and blend their phonemes automatically. (see synthetic phonics)
Analytic phonics has children analyze sound-symbol correspondences, such as the ou spelling of /aʊ/ in shrouds but students do not blend those elements as they do in synthetic phonics lessons. Furthermore, consonant blends (separate, adjacent consonant phonemes) are taught as units (e.g., in shrouds the shr would be taught as a unit).
Analogy phonics is a particular type of analytic phonics in which the teacher has students analyze phonic elements according to the phonograms in the word. A phonogram, known in linguistics as a rime, is composed of the vowel and all the sounds that follow it. Teachers using the analogy method assist students in memorizing a bank of phonograms, such as -at or -am. Students then use these phonograms to analogize to unknown words.
Embedded phonics is the hallmark of traditional whole language phonics programs. Phonics is taught in the context of literature using "mini-lessons," short lessons that emphasize phonic elements with which the teacher has seen students struggle. The focus on meaning is generally maintained, but the mini-lesson provides some time for focus on individual sounds or phonograms. Embedded phonics differs from other methods in that the instruction is always in the context of literature and that separate lessons are not typically taught.
Owing to the shifting debate over time (see "History and Controversy" above), many school systems, such as California's, have made major changes in the method they have used to teach early reading. Today, most teachers combine phonics with the elements of whole language that focus on reading comprehension, as Adams advocated.[3] This combined approach is often called balanced literacy. Proponents of various approaches generally agree that a combined approach is important. A few stalwarts favor isolated synthetic phonics and introduction of intensive reading comprehension only after children have mastered sound-symbol correspondences. On the other side, some whole language supporters are unyielding in arguing that phonics should be taught little, if at all. Generally, however, the balanced literacy approach has settled much of the disagreement in the United States.
There has been a resurgence in interest in synthetic phonics in recent years, particularly in the United Kingdom. The subject has been promoted by a cross-party group of Parliamentarians, particularly Nick Gibb MP. A recent report by the House of Commons Education and Skills Committee called for a review of the phonics content in the National Curriculum. The Department for Education and Skills have since announced a review into early years reading, headed by Jim Rose.
Jim Rose's group has now reported and the UK Government has decreed that synthetic phonics should be the method of choice for teaching reading in primary schools in England.

miércoles, 15 de junio de 2011

Teaching Vocabulary-links, books, ideas

Teaching Vocabulary-links, books, ideas

Fast - Collocations - ESL British English Pronunciation

Jack Nicholson: The terror

Flamenco

Construction Project management vocabulary C

Change Order - A written document between the owner and the contractor signed by the owner and the contractor authorizing a change in the work or an adjustment in the contract sum or the contract time. A change order may be signed by the architect or engineer, provided they have written authority from the owner for such procedure and that a copy of such written authority is furnished to the contractor upon request. The contract sum and the contract time may be changed only by change order. A change order may be in the form of additional compensation or time; or less compensation or time known as a Deduction (from the contract) the amount deducted from the contract sum by change order.
Change Order Proposal - A change order proposal is the written document before it has been approved and effected by the Contractor and Owner. A change order proposal can be issued by either the contractor or the owner. The change order proposal becomes a change order only after it has been approved and effected by the Contractor and Owner.
Change Order Request - A written document issued by the owner requesting an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time; generally issued by the architect or owners representative.
Changed Conditions - Conditions or circumstances, physical or otherwise, which surface after a contract has been signed and which alter the circumstances or conditions on which the contract is based, i.e., Concealed Conditions or Latent Conditions.
Chart of Accounts - An alpha/numeric identification system for budget line items that ensures that project expenditures are properly debited/credited in the project budget as payments are made in behalf of the project.
Checks and Balances - The term used to describe the use of the overlapping expertise of each team member during team decision making.
Claim - A formal notice sent by a contractor to an owner asserting the fact that the terms of the contract have been breached and compensation is being sought by the contractor from the owner.
Clerk-of-the-Work - An individual employed by an owner to represent him on a project at the site of the work.  The clerk-of-the-work's abilities, credentials, and responsibilities vary at the discretion of the owner.
Closed Bid - A specific term used where only invited bidders or estimators are given access to the prescribed project information. Usually the owner provides a designed list of invitees.
CM - The abbreviation for Construction Management and Construction Manager (a firm that provides CM services or persons who work for a CM firm).
CM Fee Plus Reimbursables - A form of payment for CM services where the construction manager is paid a fixed or percentage fee for CM expertise, plus pre-established hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly costs for field personnel and equipment.
CM Format - The interactive contracting approach to providing a project's needs, used by the CM project team to manage a project.
CM Partnering - A contractual commitment by the Owner, A/E, and CM to achieve a common goal, and doing so without a stakeholder's exposure to a potential for conflict of interest in pursuit of that goal.
CM Philosophy - An enlightened approach to accomplishing an owner-oriented end result using a system of motivating concepts and principles for achievement.
CM Procedures Manual - The depository for the proprietary micro-management procedures used by the CM to detail and facilitate the service obligations owed to a client.
CM Project Manual - The common depository for the micro-management procedures to be used on the project by the team to accomplish project requirements.
CM Services - The scope of services provided by a construction manager and available to owners in whole or in part.  CM services are not consistent in scope or performance from one CM firm to another.
Codes - Prevailing regulations, ordinances or statutory requirements set forth by governmental agencies associated with building construction practices and owner occupancy, adopted and administered for the protection of public health, life safety and welfare. 
Collateral Information - Information of value that is unexpectedly made available through the routine performance of another activity or activities.
Commissioning - The process at or near construction completion when a facility is put into use to see if it functions as designed.  Usually applied to manufacturing type projects, and similar to Beneficial Occupancy in the commercial sector.
Completion Schedule - A schedule of the activities and events required to effect occupancy or the use of a facility for its intended purpose.  It is used to determine if construction progress will meet the occupancy date.
Conditions of the Contract - Term that refers to the General Conditions and the Supplementary and Special Conditions of the contract for construction.
Construct - To assemble and combine construction materials and methods to make a structure.
Constructability - The optimizing of cost, time, and quality factors with the material, equipment, construction means, methods, and techniques used on a project; accomplished by matching owner values with available construction industry practices.
Construction - The act or process of constructing.
Construction Budget - The target cost figure covering the construction phase of a project.  It includes the cost of contracts with trade contractors, construction support items other purchased labor, material and equipment, and the construction manager's cost but not the cost of land, A/E fees, or consultant fees.
Construction Coordination - The orchestration or interfacing of performing contractors on-site.
Construction Cost - (1) The direct contractor costs for labor, material, equipment, and services; contractors overhead and profit; and other direct construction costs. Construction cost does not include the compensation paid to the architect and engineer and consultants, the cost of the land, rights-of-way or other costs which are defined in the contract documents as being the responsibility of the owner. 
Construction Document Review - The owners review of the borrowers construction documents (plans and specifications), list of materials, and cost breakdowns for the purpose of confirming that these documents and estimates are feasible and are in accordance with the proposed loan or project appraisal.
Construction Documents - All drawings, specifications and addenda associated with a specific construction project. These documents delineate and graphically represent the physical construction requirements established by the A/E.
Construction Documents Phase - The third phase of the architect's basic services wherein the architect prepares working drawings, specifications and bidding information. Depending on the architects scope of services the architect may assists the owner in the preparation of bidding forms, the conditions of the contract and the form of agreement between the owner and contractor.
Construction Inspector - A qualified individual authorized by the owner to assist in the inspection of the construction project to ensure compliance with the contract documents and/or a specific construction contract.
Construction Management (CM) - A project delivery system that uses a construction manager to facilitate the design and construction of a project by organizing and directing men, materials, and equipment to accomplish the purpose of the designer. A professional service that applies effective management techniques to the planning, design, and construction of a project from inception to completion for the purpose of controlling time, cost and quality, as defined by the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA). 
Construction Management Contract - A written agreement wherein responsibilities for coordination and accomplishment of overall project planning, design and construction are given to a construction management firm. The building team generally consists of the owner, contractor and designer or architect.
Construction Manager - A firm or business organization with the expertise and resources to manage the design, contracting, and construction aspects of project delivery. Individuals who work for a CM Firm are also referred to as Construction Managers.
Construction Phase - The fifth and final phase of the architect's basics services, which includes the architect's general administration (G&A) of the construction contract.
Construction Schedule - A graphic, tabular or narrative representation or depiction of the construction portion of the project-delivery process, showing activities and durations in sequential order.
Construction Support Items - Purchases, services, or materials required to facilitate construction at the site. As part of the construction budget, these are financial obligations of the owner and the logistic responsibility of the CM.
Construction Team - The designated responsible project management of each trade contractor plus the Level 2 and Level 3 Managers of the owner, A/E, and CM, i.e., Project Team.
Constructor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager self-performs some of the construction on the project.
Consultant Professional firm and/or individual hired by the owner or client to give professional advise.
Contingencies - Line-item amounts in the project budget, dedicated to specific cost areas where oversight is an inherent problem in project delivery.
Contract - (1) An agreement between two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable by law (2) The writing or document containing such an agreement.
Contract Administration - The contractual duties and responsibilities of the A/E, contractor or CM during the construction phase of a specific project fo servicing the interactive provisions in the contract for construction.
Contract Bond - A written form of security from a surety company, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing complete execution of the contract and all supplemental agreements pertaining thereto and for the payment of all legal debts pertaining to the construction of the project.
Contract Date - 1) Usually on the front page of the agreement (2) If not on front page it may be the date opposite the signatures when the agreement was actually signed (3) or when it was recorded (4) or the date the agreement was actually awarded to the contractor.
Contract Document Phase - The final phase of design on an architectural project when construction documents are completed and bidding documents formulated.
Contract Document Review - A review of Bid and/or Contract Documents on a continuing basis, or at short intervals during the pre-construction phase, to preclude errors, ambiguities, and omissions.
Contract Documents - A term used to represent all executed agreements between the owner and contractor, any general, supplementary or other contract conditions, the drawings and specifications, all bidding documents less bidding information plus pre-award addenda issued prior to execution of the contract and post-award Change Orders, and any other items specifically stipulated as being included in the contract documents, which collectively form the contract between the contractor and the owner.
Contract Overrun - The cost deficit after determining the difference between the original contract price and the final completed cost including all adjustments by approved change order.
Contract Payment Bond - A written form of security from a surety company to the owner, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing payment to all persons providing labor, materials, equipment, or services in accordance with the contract.
Contract Performance Bond - A written form of security from a surety company to the owner, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing the completion of the work in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Contract Period - The elapsed number of working days or calendar days from the specified date of commencing work to the specified date of completion, as specified in the contract.
Contract Sum - The total agreeable amount payable by the owner to the contractor for the performance of the work under the contract documents.
Contract Time - The time period set forth established in the contract documents for completing a specific project; usually stated in working days or calendar days. The contract time can only be adjusted by valid time extensions through change order.
Contract Underrun - The cost savings after determining the difference between the original contract price and the final completed cost including all adjustments by approved change order.
Contractability - The optimizing of cost, time, and quality factors with the contracting structures and techniques used on a project; accomplished by matching owner contracting requirements with available construction industry practices.
Contracting Officer - An official representative of the owner with specific authority to act in his behalf in connection with a specific project.
Contractor - A properly licensed individual of company that contracts to perform a defined scope of work on a construction project and agrees to furnish labor, materials, equipment and associated services to perform the work as specified for a specified price.
Contractor/Constructor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager holds construction contracts and self-performs construction on the project.
Contractor's Option - A written provision in the contract documents giving the contractor the option of selecting certain specified materials, methods or systems without changing in the contract sum.
Contractor's Qualification Statement - A written statement of the Contractor's experience and qualifications submitted to the Owner during the contractor selection process. The American Institute of Architects publishes a standard Contractor's Qualification Statement form for this purpose.
Contractor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager holds construction contracts for the project.
Contractual Liability - The liability assumed by a party under a contract.
Control CM - A person designated by the CM firm to interface with the owner’s and A/E’s representatives on the project team at the second management level.
Coordination Meeting - Meeting held in the field to review project status and coordinate scheduled activities.
Coordinator - A person designated to assist a Control CM, Project Manager, or Level 2 Manager in executing the CM format.
Cost Breakdown - A financial statement furnished by the contractor to the architect or engineer delineating the portions of the contract sum allotted for the various parts of the work and used as the basis for reviewing the contractor's applications for progress payments.
Cost Codes - A numbering system given to specific kinds of work for the purpose of organizing the cost control process of a specific project.
Cost Control / Cost Management - Deliberations, actions, and reactions to project cost fluctuations during a project to maintain the project cost within the project budget.
Cost of Construction - The target cost figure covering the construction phase of a project.  It includes the cost of contracts with trade contractors, construction support items other purchased labor, material and equipment, and the construction manager's cost but not the cost of land, A/E fees, or consultant fees.
Cost of Work - All costs incurred by the contractor in the proper performance of the work required by the plans and specifications for a specific project.
Cost Plus Contract - A form of contract usually between an owner and contractor, A/E design professional, or CM, under which the contractor, A/E or CM is reimbursed for his/her direct and indirect costs and, in addition, is paid a fee for his/her services. The fee is usually stated as a stipulated sum or as a percentage of cost.
Cost Plus Fee Agreement - A written agreement with the owner under which the contractor, A/E or CM for "Cost-Plus" work.
Credibility - The quality of something that makes it believable.
Critical Date Schedule - A schedule of milestones spanning from the start of construction to occupancy, used as the main measure of progress to keep the project on schedule.
Critical Path - The continuous chain of activities from project-start to project-finish, whose durations cannot be exceeded if the project is to be completed on the project-finish date. A sequence of activities that collectively require the longest duration to complete (the duration of the sequence is the shortest possible time from the start event to the finish event). Activities on the critical path have no slack time.
Critical Path Method (CPM) - A planning scheduling and control line and symbol diagram drawn to show the respective tasks and activities involved in constructing a specific project.
Critical Path Schedule - A schedule that utilizes the Critical Path scheduling technique using either the arrow or precedence diagramming method.
CSI - Abbreviation for theConstruction Specification Institute
CSI Master Format - The CSI Master Format is a system of numbers and titles for organizing construction information into a regular, standard order or sequence. By establishing a master list of titles and numbers Master Format promotes standardization and thereby facilitates the retrieval of information and improves construction communication. It provides a uniform system for organizing information in project manuals, for organizing project cost data, and for filing product information and other technical data.
Currant Date Line - A vertical line on the chart indicating the currant date.

Construction Project management vocabulary B

Bid Shopping - Negotiations to obtain lower costs and prices both prior to submitting proposals and after signing contracts. 
Bid Tabulation - A summary sheet listing all bid prices.
Bid Time - The time set by the owner, architect or engineer for receiving bids.
Bidding Documents - The published advertisement or written invitation to bid , instructions to bidders, the bid form and the proposed contract documents including any acknowledged addenda issued prior to receipt of bids.
Bidding Period - The calendar period allowed from issuance of bidding requirements and contract documents to the prescribed bid date/time.
Bidding Requirements - The written minimum acceptable requirements set forth by the owner to the contractor during bidding process. The owner usually reserves the right to reject a bid if the Bidding Requirements are not met.
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Bond - (see Bid Bond, Contract Bond, Contract Payment Bond, Contract Performance Bond, Labor and Material Payment Bond, Performance Bond or Subcontractor Bond).
Bonding Company - A properly licensed firm or corporation willing to execute a surety bond, or bonds, payable to the owner, securing the performance on a contract either in whole or in part; or securing payment for labor and materials.
Bonus-Penalty Clause - A positive/negative incentive to comply with a schedule. A bonus is paid for timely performance; a penalty is assessed for untimely performance. The dollar amount of the bonus and penalty must be equal, e.g., Penalty-Bonus clause in a contract.
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Budget (Construction Budget) - (1) An itemized summary of estimated or intended expenditures for a given period of time (2) The total sum of money allocated for a specific project.
Budget Estimate - An estimate of cost based on rough or incomplete information, with a stated degree of accuracy. The more information available, the more accurate the estimate. Loosely called a "ballpark" estimate.
Building - (1) To form by combining materials or parts (2) A structure enclosed within a roof and within exterior walls housing, shelter, enclosure and support of individuals, animals, or real property of any kind.
Building Code - The legal requirements set up by the prevailing various governing agencies covering the minimum acceptable requirements for all types of construction.
Building Envelope - (1) The waterproof elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior. (2) The outer structure of the building. (sometimes referred to as "Building Shell") 
Building Inspector/Official - A qualified government representative authorized to inspect construction for compliance with applicable building codes, regulations and ordinances. Courts have ruled that building inspections are exempt from errors and omissions liabilities.
Building Permit - A written document issued by the appropriate governmental authority permitting construction to begin on a specific project in accordance with drawings and specifications approved by the governmental authority.
Building Process - A term used to express every step of a construction project from it’s conception to final acceptance and occupancy.
Bulletin - A delineation, narrative or both describing a proposed change for pricing by a contractor and for consideration as a change by the owner.

martes, 14 de junio de 2011

Animals

Idioms 2

A month of Sundays.
A month of Sundays is a long period of time: I haven't seen her in a month of Sundays.

A OK.
If things are A OK, they are absolutely fine.

A penny for your thoughts.
This idiom is used as a way of asking someone what they are thinking about.

A penny saved is a penny earned.
This means that we shouldn't spend or waste money, but try to save it.

A picture is worth a thousand words.
A picture can often get a message across much better than the best verbal description.

A poor man's something.
Something or someone that can be compared to something or someone else, but is not as good is a poor man's version; a writer who uses lots of puns but isn't very funny would be a poor man's Oscar Wilde.

A pretty penny
If something costs a pretty penny, it is very expensive.

A problem shared is a problem halved.
If you talk about your problems, it will make you feel better.

A rising tide lifts all boats.
This idiom, coined by John F Kennedy, describes the idea that when an economy is performing well, all people will benefit from it.

A rolling stone gathers no moss.
People say this to mean that that an ambitious person is more successful than a person not trying to achieve anything. Originally it meant the opposite and was critical of people trying to get ahead.

A slice off a cut loaf is never missed.
Used colloquially to describe having sexual intercourse with someone who is not a virgin, especially when they are in a relationship. The analogy refers to a loaf of bread; it is not readily apparent, once the end has been removed, exactly how many slices

A steal If something is a steal.
it costs much less than it is really worth.

A still tongue keeps a wise head.
Wise people don't talk much.

A textbook case.
A textbook case, it is a classic or common example of something.

A watched pot never boils.
Some things work out in their own time, so being impatient and constantly checking will just make things seem longer.

A1
If something is A1, it is the very best or finest.

Abide by a decision.
If you abide by a decision, you accept it and comply with it, even though you might disagree with it.

Abject lesson (India)
An abject lesson serves as a warning to others. (In some varieties of English 'object lesson' is used.)

About as useful as a chocolate teapot.
Someone or something that is of no practical use is about as useful as a chocolate teapot.

Idioms 1

Idiom is a group of words that are used together all the time, but you can't find the meaning from the individual words. For example, you can't translate "down in the dumps" word-by-word to find the meaning (sad). All languages have idioms.

A "loonie" is a one-dollar Canadian coin. It has a picture of a loon on it.
a background check : = looking into your past activity
A bean counter is an accountant.
A belief in the hereafter is a belief in the afterlife, or life after death. It is, therefore, associated with religions and the soul's journey to heaven or to hell, whichever way being just deserts for the person based on how they led their life.
A big fish in a small pond is an important person in a small place or organisation.
A big hitter is someone who commands a lot of respect and is very important in their field.
'A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush' is a proverb meaning that it is better to have something that is certain than take a risk to get more, where you might lose everything.
A bit much If something is excessive or annoying, it is a bit much.
A bit player has a small or unimportant role in something.
A bitter pill to swallow is something that is hard to accept.
A busman's holiday is when you spend your free time doing the same sort of work as you do in your job.
A chain is no stronger than its weakest link This means that processes, organisations, etc, are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them.
a cinch: something that's very easy to do.
A day late and a dollar short (USA) If something is a day late and a dollar short, it is too little, too late.
a drop in the bucket a very small amount of something compared with the amount that is needed
A fool and his money are soon parted This idiom means that people who aren't careful with their money spend it quickly. 'A fool and his money are easily parted' is an alternative form of the idiom.
A fool at 40 is a fool forever If someone hasn't matured by the time they reach forty, they never will.
A hitch in your giddy-up If you have a hitch in your giddy-up, you're not feeling well. ('A hitch in your gittie-up' is also used.)
a hole in the wall
A lick and a promise If you give something a lick and a promise, you do it hurriedly, most often incompletely, intending to return to it later.
A little bird told me If someone doesn't want to say where they got some information from, they can say that a little bird told them.
A little learning is a dangerous thing A small amount of knowledge can cause people to think they are more expert than they really are.eg. he said he'd done a course on home electrics, but when he tried to mend my table lamp, he fused all the lights! I think a little learning is a dangerous th
A long row to hoe Something that is a long row to hoe is a difficult task that takes a long time.
A lost ball in the high weeds A lost ball in the high weeds is someone who does not know what they are doing, where they are or how to do something.

domingo, 12 de junio de 2011

English-Prefixes-Suffixes-Roots

Intonation In English:

Intonation In English: Expression Of Two Words
by Frank Gerace
Listen and Learn: The Intonation of Two-Word Expressions
Many people think that pronunciation is what makes up an accent. It may be that pronunciation is very important for an understandable accent. But it is intonation that gives the final touch that makes an accent native.

Intonation is the "music" of a language, and is perhaps the most important element of a good accent. Often we hear someone speaking with perfect grammar, and perfect formation of the sounds of English but with a little something that gives them away as not being a native speaker.

Therefore, it is necessary to realize that there is more than the correct pronunciation of the vowels and consonants of a language. This is very important and we do stress it in other articles. But it is only one of the three components to an accent, pronunciation, intonation, and linking.

In other places we will examine the correct pronunciation of vowels and consonants, and linking, the way that syllables within a word, and the beginning and ending of words come together.

But in this article we will look at how the difference that intonation makes in the daily use of a proper North American English accent. The practice will help you to notice, practice, and master the different intonation patterns that you will discover as you concentrate more on your use of North American English.
Two Word Stress
Knowing when and where to stress the words you use is very important for understanding, and therefore, as part of a good accent. A clear example is that of stress in two word expressions.

According to whether it is an ordinary two-word expression or a special, set expression, the place of the stress changes. In an ordinary expression the two words are used to describe something like a "white HOUSE" (meaning a house that is painted white, and not blue or gray). In this case the most important note is the noun because we are talking about a house that happens to be white. Similarly, a "fat BOY" is an overweight young male.

But sometimes short two word expressions are set or "consecrated", (that is, they mean something special) and have to be made different from similar expressions. One example is "the WHITE house" where Mr. Bush lives. In this case, the emphasis is on the adjective because we are more interested in stressing that it is the house that is known because it is white. In the same way, "FAT boy" is the nickname of a boy, chosen because the word fat emphasizes his weight.

It will be useful for you to be aware of both types of two word expressions. Here is a list of a few that will get you thinking and give you some practice in identifying them and using them correctly. Underline the syllable that is stressed, and write a brief explanation, for both uses of each phrase. I start the exercise with two examples. You do the rest. Make sure you say the phrases OUT LOUD!


Intonation In English: Nouns And Adjectives Are Stressed Differently Than Verbs
by Frank Gerace
Listen and Learn: Nouns and Adjectives one way; Verbs another
Chinese has "tones" but all languages have their own special intonation. The "music" of a language is its intonation and it is perhaps the most important element of a correct accent.

A "good" accent is not only a question of good pronunciation. Many people think that pronunciation is what makes up an accent. It may be that pronunciation is very important for an understandable accent. But it is intonation that gives the final touch that makes an accent correct or native. Often we hear someone speaking with perfect grammar, and perfect formation of the sounds of English but with a little something that gives her away as not being a native speaker.

Therefore, it is necessary to realize that there are three components to an accent, pronunciation, intonation, and linking. In other places we will examine pronunciation, the proper formation of vowels and consonants, and linking, the way that syllables within a word, and the beginning and ending of words come together.

But what interests us now is the issue of intonation, and in particular the difference in intonation of nouns and adjusctives on the one hand, and the intonation of verbs on the other. A review of this gives us a perfect example of how meaning affects intonation.
Noun/Adjective and Verb
In other articles, we saw: that verbs of two syllables often have the stress on the second syllable, while the related noun has the stress on the first syllable. We also saw that expressiones of two words are stressed differently according to their meaning.

This article, along with the others, is an example of the effect that meaning has on intonation in English. Many native speakers do not realize that the "rule" of this section is pretty rigorous. To know it can help you in building your vocabulary at the same time that you perfect your intonation. Even native speakers can profit from being more precise in the intonation of their English.

This is another intonation pattern that you must master. Verbs ending in the letters "ate" pronounce the letter "a" of the last syllable with the "long a" sound (the name of the letter "a", the sound of the words steak and make). Related nouns or adjectives pronounce the letter "a" of the last syllable with the indefinite schwa sound (the sound of the "a" of the word about, or the second "e" in the word elephant)

For each word, indicate that you know the difference between the two uses of the same word (by "same" we mean having the same spelling.)

First, give a brief meaning of the word used as noun or adjective and put the letter "I" to indicate that the final letter "a" is the indefinite sound of the "a" in about.

Next, give a brief meaning of the word used as a verb and put the letter "A" to indicate that the final letter "a" is the sound of the "long a" of the word make.

I start the exercise with two examples, the words alternate and appropriate. I have indicated the stress with CAPITAL LETTERS. You underline the syllable that is stressed, and write a brief explanation to indicate that you understand the difference. You do the rest of the table. And make sure you pronounce the words OUT LOUD.

Alternate I
Noun: A substitute

Alternate A
Verb: To take turns.

Appropriate I
Adjective: correct or suitable

Appropriate A
Verb: To take over.
Now, you do the rest of the table, underlinging the accented syllable and defining the word to emphasize your understanding that the accent goes with the meaning.
approximate, to approximate
articulate, to articulate
associate, to associate
deliberate, to deliberate
duplicate, to duplicate
laminate, to laminate
graduate, to graduate
intimate, to intimate
moderate, to moderate
predicate, to predicate
precipitate, to precipitate
Practice on the following sentences that contain some of the words of the list used buth as noun or adjective, and as verb. Underline the accent and read the sentences out loud
The facilitator wanted to separate the general topic into separate categories
Would you care to elaborate on his elaborate explanation?
Have you heard that your associate is known to associate with gangsters?
How much do you estimate that the estimate will be?
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About the Author:
Frank Gerace Ph.D has worked in Latin America in UN and national Educational and Communication Projects, and has taught in Bolivian and Peruvian Universities. He currently teaches English in New York City at La Guardia College/CUNY. He provides resources on accent reduction and the proper American English accent at http://www.GoodAccent.com

How to Improve Your Accent
Are you tired of people asking you to repeat because they don't understand you? Your friends say, "Just do this!" and they expect you to make the sound! Would you like to learn once and for all what to do with your lips, tongue and mouth to make the sounds of english?
Do you feel that everything sounds the same? You know you are pronouncing the words wrong; you know that you are pausing too much; you know that when you talk, it doesn't sound like english, but you don't know what to do.
Wouldn't you like to learn once and for all what are the most common errors that people make when they learn english so you could concentrate on those errors.
Then... take a look at this page and the information and the resources that it makes available to you!
First of all, you have to realize that an accent is made up of three parts: intonation, liaisons, and pronunciation.
You have to learn the "rules" of these three components of your new language. The work "rule" is in quotes because in speech all "rules" may be broken by native speakers in special circumstances. Still, if a "rule" helps you 9 times out of ten, you shouldn't complain if it fails you once.
Intonation is the most important and the most difficult to change. It is the "music", the rhythm or a language. Get a free report on intonation here!
Liaisons, or linkages, are the ways that words and parts of words are linked together in a language. This may be very different from how you do it in your native language.
And pronunciation is the way that sounds are made in the new language. These sounds may be similar (rarely exactly the same) to the sounds of your own language, or they may be very different. To learn the sounds, you have to learn where in the mouth the sound is made, how it is made, and the position of the tongue in making the sound.